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您的位置:首页 > 试题专区 > 英语 > 2014年山东ballbet体育钱包英语语法与词汇第九章虚拟语气

2014年山东ballbet体育钱包英语语法与词汇第九章虚拟语气

2014-01-15 山东ballbet体育钱包

 

第九章                 虚拟语气
 
一、虚拟式用于非真实条件句时的构成

 
if从句
主句
与现在事实相反
动词的过去式(系动词bewere表示)
would (should/ could/ might ) +动词原形
与过去事实相反
动词的过去完成式
would (should, could, might) + have + 动词的过去分词
与将来时间相反
1. 动词的过去式 (bewere)
2. were+不定式
3. should+动词原形
would (should, could, might) + 动词原形

         【例句】
If I had time, I would go to the movies with you. (与现在事实相反)
If I were you, I should do it.(与现在事实相反)
If we hadn’t made adequate preparations, the conference wouldn’t have been so successful. (与过去事实相反)
If it were to rain tomorrow, the game would be put off. (与将来时间相反)
We should show you the result of the experiment if you should come this evening. (与将来时间相反)
 
【实例】
If the whole operation ______ beforehand, a great deal of time and money would have been lost.
A. was not planned                                          B. has not been planned
C. had not been planned                                   D. were not planned           (1999. 6)
要是整个手术当时没有预先计划好的话,大量的时间和钱就白花了。答案C
【实例】
Jean doesn’t want to work right away because she thinks that if she ______ a job she probably wouldn’t be able to see her friends very often.
A. has to get                                                            B. were to get
C. had got                                                               D. could have got                  (1996.1)
琼不想马上就工作,她想要是找了工作,就不能经常探访朋友了。答案B
 
l          说明:
1) 在非真实条件句中,有时从句的动词所表示的动作和主句的动词所表示的动作并不同时发生,这样的条件句中使用的虚拟式称为混合虚拟式或称为错综时间条件句。此时,动词的形式要根据表示的时间来调整。而且一般有明确的时间状语如now, then, tomorrow等提示这种差异。
         【例句】
I should have brought the box of books myself if it were not heavy. 如果书箱不是这样的沉重,我自己就把它带来了。(从句用一般时,表示客观情况,主句用了完成时,表示过去没有做的动作)
If I had taken my raincoat when I came out this morning, I would not be wet now.
(从句虚拟过去,主句虚拟现在)
If I were you, I wouldn’t have missed the film last night. (从句虚拟现在,主句虚拟过去)
If Tom intended to start out this morning, he would have got everything ready last night. (从句虚拟将来,主句虚拟过去)
If he had taken my advice, he would be a scientist now. (从句虚拟过去,主句虚拟现在)
If he should ask for me, tell him to phone me. 如果他来找我,叫他打电话给我。(从句用了表示将来的虚拟语气,而主句用了祈使句。)
【实例】
If I hadn’t stood under the ladder to catch you when you fell, you ______ now.
A. wouldn’t be smiling                                                     B. couldn’t have smiled
C. won’t smile                                                      D. didn’t smile                           (1999.1)
你掉下来时,如不是我在梯子下面把你接住,恐怕你就不是现在这个样了。答案A
 
2) 从句中如有助动词,情态动词,动词behave时,引导非真实条件从句的连词if在正式文体中有时可以省去,werehadshould等非行为动词这时应提到从句句首,构成倒装结构。
         【例句】
Were I you (=If I were you), I wouldn’t feel sorry.
Had we made (=lf we had made) adequate preparations, we might have succeeded。要是准备充分,我们本来是有可能成功的。
Were I (=If 1 were) asked, I should tell all the facts。如果问到我,我将讲出所有事实。
Had you (=If you had) not helped me, I should failed. 要是没有你的帮助,我就失败了。
Were I (=If I were) to do the work, I should do it some other way. 要是我做这项工作,我就用另外的办法。
【实例】
______ right now, she would get there on Sunday.
A. Would she leave                                       B. If she leaves
C. Were she to leave                                      D. If she had left                  1996.6
她要是现在就走的话,星期天就到那儿了。答案C
 
3) 主从句还可以换位:
We might have succeeded had we made adequate preparations.
 
4) 主句主谓还可以省略:
Don’t press the button. ----What (would happen) if I did? 不要按按钮。——要是按了会怎么样?
 
二、虚拟式也可用于其他情况
1. 在表示愿望、建议、命令、要求等意义的动词后的宾语从句,用Sshould +V结构,should可省可留。常见这类动词如下:
request请求,vote建议,propose提议,move提议,decide决定,advise劝告,order命令,ask要求,demand要求,maintain坚持,require要求,insist坚持,urge极力主张,desire渴望,object反对,prefer宁愿,recommend推荐,plead恳求,ask要求,suggest建议,command命令等。
【例句】
I suggest that we (should) go camping tomorrow.
He insisted that our laboratory reports (should) be handed in the day after the experiment was done. 他坚持要求我们在做完实验后第二天将实验报告交上来。
l          提示:
上句中insist意为坚持要求。如insist坚持认为解,则不需用虚拟式。
【例句】
He insisted that he was right. 他坚持认为他是对的。
 
【实例】
As Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, I have directed that all measures ______ for our defense.
A. had been taken                                  B. would be taken            
C. be taken                                                     D. to be taken                                           (1999.6)
我作为武装部队的总司令命令采取一切措施进行防御。答案C
 
2. It is/was+形容词/过去分词+that结构后的主语从句,用虚拟结构,S+ should +V。表示必要、应该、建议、要求、惊讶、不相信等意。常见形容词和过去分词如下:
possible可能的,urgent紧迫的,ordered命令的,important重要的,imperative迫切的,requested要求的,advisable适当的,appropriate恰当的,commanded命令的,vital非常重要的,keen渴望的,preferred更喜欢的,desirable想望的,probable可能的,asked要求的,essential必要的,preferable更可取的,required要求的,better较好的,insisted坚持的,suggested建议的,recommended推荐的,resolved决定的,necessary必要的等。
【例句】
It’s necessary that we (should) set out at once.
It’s proposed that a committee (should) be set up to look into the matter.
【实例】
I don’t think it advisable that Tom ______ to the job since he has no experience.
A. is assigned                                        B. will be assigned
C. be assigned                                      D. has been assigned                (1997.6)
汤姆缺乏经验,指派他做这项工作我认为是不恰当的。答案C
 
3. 表示愿望、建议、命令、要求等意义的名词后的表语从句或同位语从句用虚拟结构S+(should)+V。常见名词如下:
recommendation推荐,preference偏爱,advice忠告,requirement要求,insistence坚持,request请求,proposal提议,motion提议,demand要求,understanding理解,order命令,necessity必要性,importance重要性,significance重要性,plan计划,desire要求,command命令,decision决定,suggestion建议,requirement要求,instruction指令,idea想法等。
【例句】
My suggestion is that we (should) set up a special board to examine the problem. 我的建议是成立一个特别委员会来研究这个问题。
What do you think of his proposal that the meeting (should) be postponed till next Saturday? 他建议会议延期到下礼拜六开,你觉得怎么样
【实例】
We are all for your proposal that the discussion ______.
A. be put off                                                  B. was put off        
C. should put off                                             D. is to put off                                    (1998. 6)
我们都支持你提出的推迟讨论的建议。答案A
 
4. 虚拟语气“should十动词原形”(或完成原形)可以表示惊讶、遗憾、不满、责备、不以为然等含义。用于it is a pityit is a shameit is strangeit is naturalit is incredible等词语后的主语从句中。这时should不可省。
         【例句】
It is a pity that he should be so careless. 真遗憾他竟会如此粗心大意。
It’s strange that she should have failed the exam. 真奇怪,这次考试她竟会不及格。
It is quite natural that such problems should arise. 出现此类问题是很自然的。
 
5. 虚拟语气可用于wish后的宾语从句中,表示与事实相反的愿望。其虚拟形式为:
a)与现在事实相反:行为动词v-ed/ 系动词were       用过去时表示与现在相反
b)与过去事实相反:had +v-ed/ could have done        用过去完成时表示与过去相反
c)与将来事实相反:would/ could/ might +v             表示与愿望相反
         【例句】
I wish I had been to the concert last night. (指过去)
I wish he would forgive me. (指现在)
I wish I were as handsome as he is. 但愿我有他那样的一表人材。(指现在)
I wish I had paid more attention to my pronunciation. 我以前要是对发音多注意一些就好了。(指过去)
I wish he would try again。我希望他还能再试一次。(指将来)
【实例】
I wish I ______ longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class.
A. could have slept                                       B. slept                
C. might have slept                             D. have slept                                      (1995.6)
我真希望今天早上能多睡一会儿,可我不得不起床去上课。答案A
 
6. if only引起的感叹句用虚拟语气。其虚拟形式为:
a)与现在事实相反:行为动词v-ed/ 系动词were       用过去时表示与现在相反
b)与过去事实相反:had +v-ed                                         用过去完成时表示与过去相反
c)与将来事实相反:would/could/ might +v                                          表示与愿望相反
         【例句】
         If only I knew Japanese! 我要是懂日语多好啊!(指现在)
If only the letter had arrived in time! 信要是及时到了就好了! (指过去)
If only I could only see him again! 我要是能再见他一面就好了! (指将来)
【实例】
If only the committee ______ the regulations and put them in to effect as soon as possible.
A. approve                                                     B. will approve
C. can approve                                       D. would approve                                 (1997.1)
要是委员会尽快批准这些规章制度并付之实施就好了。答案D
 
7. as if (though) 引导的状语从句中,谓语动词大多用虚拟语气。其虚拟形式为:
a)与现在事实相反:行为动词v-ed/ 系动词were       用过去时表示与现在相反
b)与过去事实相反:had +v-ed                                         用过去完成时表示与过去相反
c)与将来事实相反:would +v                                          表示与愿望相反
         【例句】
She looks as if she knew all about it. (指现在)
They talked as though they had got acquainted with each other for years. (指过去)
I remember the whole thing as if it happened yesterday. 这件事我记忆忧新,就象是昨天发生的事似的。(指现在)
They talked as if they had been friends for years. 他们说话很亲热,就象多年老朋友似的。(指过去)
 
l          提示:
lookseemsoundfeeltaste等动词后的as if (as though) 从句中,当表示真实情况时,用陈述语气,不用虚拟语气。
【例句】
         It looks as if we shall have to do the work ourselves.
It sounds as if someone is knocking at the door.
 
8. lest (以防)for fear that(惟恐)in case(以防)引起的从句。
lestin case引导的目的状语从句出现在过去时中,多用虚拟结构,should可省略。否则,也可用陈述语气。for fear that引导的目的状语从句,可用should也可用maymight
【例句】
I’ll keep a seat for you in case you (should) change your mind. 我给你留了一个座位,说不定你会改变主意。
She put the coat over her son for fear that (lest) he should catch cold. 她把大衣盖在儿子身上怕他着凉。
【实例】
The mad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he ______ himself.        
A. injure                                                               B. had injured
C. injured                                                             D. would injure                           (1998.1)
疯子被关进墙上装有衬垫的病房,以防他自伤。答案A
 
9. It is (high, about) time后的定语从句常用虚拟语气,结构为:It’s time+主语+动词过去式。表示应该做还没做的事。其含义是现在或将来,不是过去。
         【例句】
It is high time (that) I was going. 现在我该走了。
It’s high time that he stopped smoking;
It’s about time that we took our leave.
【实例】
You are very selfish. Its high timeyou ______ that you are not the most important person in the world, Edgar said to his boss angrily.
A. realized     B. have realized       C. realize               D. should realize           (1999. 1)
埃德加怒气冲冲对老板说:你太自私了;你也该想想你到底有什么了起。答案 A
 
10. I would (had) rather后的句子中,动词也要求用虚拟式,表示某人的愿望。would rathersooneras soon后的宾语从句,从句中谓语动词用虚拟语气。用过去时,过去完成时可分别表示对现在、将来和过去的一种愿望。
         【例句】
I’d rather you left tomorrow instead of today. (指将来)
I’d rather he hadn’t done anything like that. (指过去)
I would sooner he came here now. 我倒希望他现在来这里。(指现在)
【实例】
I’d rather you ______ make any comment on the issue for the time being.
A. don’t                 B. wouldn’t           C. didn’t                D. shouldn’t                 (1998. 6)
我倒是希望你对这个问题暂时先别发表什么看法。答案C
 
11. 有时假设的情况不是以if引导的非真实条件从句的形式表示出来,而是通过介词。这种情况下主句动词仍需用虚拟式。如without或介词短语but forexcept forin the absence ofif (it were) not for/ were it not forif it had not been for/ had it not been forbut that+从句,save that+从句等词或词组,或由连词butor,副词otherwiseor else等,或通过上下文以及其他方式表现出来。
         【例句】
Without the sun, no life could live on earth. 如果没有太阳,地球上任何生物便不能生活。
But for the air, we would soon die. 要不是因为有空气,我们便会很快死去。
If not for the storm, we should have arrived earlier. 要不是碰上暴雨我们还会早到一些的。
We would have done better under other conditions. 别的情况下,我们本来会做得更好些。
In the absence of friction, it would be impossible to walk. 没有摩擦便不可能走路。
This change could not have taken place without a solid industrial foundation。没有坚实的工业基础发生这种变化是不可能的。
I was ill that day; otherwise I would have attended the meeting.
If it were not for his help, I could never go to college.要不是他的帮助,我绝不可能上大学。
Were it not for their assistance, we couldn’t have got over the difficulties. 要不是他们的帮助,我们不可能克服那些困难。
Had it not been for the reservoir, we’d never have been able to beat the drought. 要不是有这个水库,我们就不可能战胜干旱。
But that he saw it (= If he had not seen it), he could not have believed it.要不是他亲眼看见,他早就不相信了。
【实例】
We didn’t know his telephone numbers otherwise we ______ him.
A. would have telephoned            B. must have telephoned   
C. would telephone                    D. had telephoned                                          (1995.6)
我们不知道他的电话号码,否则,我们会打电话给他。答案A
【实例】
We ______ to start our own business, but we never had enough money.
A. have hoped                                    B. would hope       
C. had hoped                                      D. should hope                                              (1994. 1)
         我们原本就希望开业,可是钱总是不够。答案C
         【实例】
He must have had an accident, or he ______ then.
A. would have been here              B. had to be here
C. should be here                                D. would be here                                 (1990.1)
他准是出事了,否则他已经到这儿了。答案A
12. 含蓄条件句含蓄条件句常用一些标识词或词组含蓄地暗示条件,要从上下文的语言环境中判断属于哪种假设的情况。
It would be a mistake not to help him. (= It would be a mistake if we did not help him.) 要是不帮助他,就会是一个错误。
I would have written the paper before, but I have been ill. (= If I had not been ill, I would have written the paper before.)我本来早就该写好这篇论文,但我一直在生病。
         A true friend would have acted differently. (= A friend, if he had been true, would have acted differently.) 一个忠实的朋友就不会这样做了。
13. providing/provided (that), on condition that, suppose, supposing引导的条件从句中,根据语意,可以用虚拟语气,也可以用陈述语气
Suppose he came, what would you say to him? 假设他来了,你会对他说些什么?
On condition that you sign this receipt, I will pay you the money. 如果你在这张收据上签字,我就付款。
         She was prepared to come, provided/providing that she might bring her children. 如果她可以带上孩子的话,她就准备来了。

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